How Management Styles are Changing

The organization defined is a goal-directed, boundary-maintaining, and socially constructed system of human activity (Aldrich & Ruef, 1979).  In its essence, the construct of management is also met with a clear definition including the activities of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.  When considering these concepts in juxtaposition, the foundations of management do not waver, and the activities associated at a conceptual level remain the same.  What has changed, however, is how each of these activities is carried out, for the sake of the sustainability of each goal-directed, boundary-maintaining system of activity.  How the activities of management are performed is a question of style, and style has indeed evolved.  This evolution in style – and the proliferation of additional, nuanced styles – is a result of a combination of advances in technology, organizational form, as well as shifts in the prevailing workforce demographic of each organization.

To say that technology has changed what management is would be giving credit where it is not due. Technology has instead changed the way management is performed, while its functions remain stable.  The prevailing literature, both academic and practitioner, now discuss advances in technology as shepherds of a global, diverse, tightly linked, and transparent collection of organizations, which are home to managers who use every affiliation necessary to further the progress of one’s guiding objectives.  Those objectives are no longer driven by a desire to simply control aggregated activity, as was the focus both during and immediately following the industrial revolution.  Objectives, and the style of today’s manager, are driven by purpose.  This has given way to such works as Hamel’s The Future of Management, Benko & Anderson’s The Corporate Lattice, Hallowell’s Shine, as well as Pascale, Sternin, & Sternin’s The Power of Positive Deviance to name a few.  While these texts describe very different facets of organizational life, they share the common thread of managers doing everything they can to identify what is working in an organization, how best practice can be both identified and spread throughout the organization, and place the focus on the potential of a workforce, rather than upon controlling its activities.  Management style has thus changed from choosing between varying levels of commanding/controlling resources, to instead choosing between varying levels of interaction with the value chain of an organization and the resources associated with that value chain.  In its essence, management style is now most impacted by considerations for epistasis, where the critical question is how the manager will choose to leverage his/her unique talents to influence the organization’s ecosystem.  Rather than ask simply what part of an organization he/she is responsible for, the manager now instead seeks knowledge of influence networks, as both organizational knowledge and responsibility are interspersed.

– Justin

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