Designing a question for an instrument is designing a measure, an answer given to a question is of no intrinsic interest, and the answer is valuable only to the extent that it can be shown to have a predictable relationship to facts or subjective states that are of interest (Fowler, 2009, p. 87). Sweeping satisfaction questions such as with one’s job or degree program are, inherently, of little value to an assessment in their extant form. They contain limited value as there are a number of differing subjective states which might be experienced by a student throughout his/her degree program as an example. A student can find great value in his/her first courses, or potentially an entire year, yet subsequently find little value in those courses which remain. This alone would indicate the item’s inability to measure these changes in a student’s state, and would therefore not exhibit a predictable relationship to the state of interest. An objective test item is defined as one for which the scoring rules are so exhaustive and specific that they do not allow scorers to make subjective inferences or judgments (Murayama, 2012, para. 1). Requiring students to infer what period in time to which the item refers constitutes subjectivity, and negates the item’s ability to deliver anything other than a highly subjective, highly summative, point of view.
Many teachers believe that they need strong measurement skills, and report that they are confident in their ability to produce valid and reliable tests (Frey, Petersen, Edwards, Pedrotti, & Peyton, 2005, p. 2). Yet this contention remains at-issue, both as standards for establishing validity remain disparate and interspersed throughout the literature on item-writing, and as the research also shows limited assessment training as required curriculum among teaching certification programs. What is then needed to determine whether items possess required validity, are standards for the validity of each assessment item. Of an identified 40 different item-writing rules, each falls into one or more of few categories, including potentially confusing wording or ambiguous requirements, guessing, rules addressing test-taking efficiency, and rules designed to control testwiseness (Frey, Petersen, Edwards, Pedrotti, & Peyton, 2005, p. 4). Each category includes a number of item-writing rules all intended to address differing concerns for validity. Potentially confusing wording or ambiguous requirements is a category which speaks to a confidence of whether every respondent will understand a question the same way. Guessing in this instances refers to the exclusion of responses where respondents simply chose a correct answer by chance, and therefore the probability of this occurring must be reduced. Rules addressing test-taking efficiency have to do with designing items in such a way that their structure does not impede, their form is simple, completing each is brief, and options are made clear. Finally, regarding rules designed to control testwiseness, this refers to designing items so (to the largest extent possible) items are answered using only knowledge, ability, or a combination of the two, rather than identifying patterns or other unintended characteristics of an item which may lead respondents to accidentally identify a correct answer without knowing why it is the correct answer. In order to infuse greater validity into the item discussed above, considerations for all four categories are prudent. Yet tantamount to many is to alter the item in such a way that ambiguous requirement is corrected, and an appropriate span of time is delineated of the contexts of the question.
Where validity deals with the relationship between each item and an area of interest, reliability deals with the relationship between each item and the consistency of results each time a measurement is taken. In discussing whether scores resulting from an item demonstrate reliability, look for whether the items’ responses are consistent across constructs, whether scores are stable over time when the instrument is administered a second time, and whether there is consistency among test administration and scoring (Creswell, 2009, p. 149). While researchers often address validity and reliability as separate considerations, I feel their interrelationship cannot be described strongly enough. Returning to the example item on program satisfaction above, if the validity of the measurement is compromised as in creating confusion among respondents for when and how much of the program it is intended to describe, this will then heighten the probability of inconsistent responses, which then directly threatens reliability. If one respondent can answer the same question multiple ways, and do so defensibly each time while regarding another aspect of the same context, we are now measuring the same condition multiple times, and arriving at multiple and quite different results. This is especially problematic with either a true/false or multiple choice item, as either presents a very limited list of potential responses. Altering response patterns among respondents based on poorly worded items leaves the reliability of the instrument in question, as with each subsequent administration it is entirely likely different responses among those available are selected, and the percentage of each item chosen (and therefore its description of a percent of a population assessed) is unreliable. It is only after the ambiguities inherent in the item’s wording are addressed, and consistent responses collected across multiple administrations, can this item begin to be described as either valid or reliable or both.
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fowler, F. J. (2009). Survey research methods (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Frey, B. B., Petersen, S., Edwards, L. M., Pedrotti, J. T., & Peyton, V. (2005). Item-writing rules: Collective wisdom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(4), 357–364.
Murayama, K. (2012). Objective test items. Retrieved December 24, 2013 from http://www.education.com/reference/article/objective-test-items/.