In what way(s) can we as faculty hold ourselves increasingly accountable for the learning outcomes of our students, evidenced though increasing means of individual assessment rooted in both quantitative and qualitative measures alike?
This broader phraseology is used not because I could not think of a more specified question, yet instead is written in such a way that takes into account whatever context and existing levels of assessment each faculty member at an individual level already employs. I have worked with organizations where the faculty member’s performance is judged using a triangulation of supervisor feedback on progress to meeting established goals, in conjunction with the inclusion of a series of measures against student scores in-class, combined with the feedback from an ongoing student survey process. Yet does this triangulation process provide enough data to truly carry out individual assessment at a level which demonstrates sufficient accountability? By setting clear and ambitious goals, each institution can determine and communicate how it can best contribute to the realization of the potential of all its students (Association of American Colleges & Universities, 2008, p. 2). This in mind our first consideration must be less about the process by which individual assessment is carried out, and instead must first consider whether the goals as they are currently established are sufficient for the purpose of holding individual accountability to a sufficient standard. Were the goal to simply ensure a high proportion of students pass each class, this completion goal is one met with low levels of accountability for how that goal is met. Alternatively, a goal which includes reference to areas of assessment, areas of professional development, areas of curricular review, all while targeting student success then begets a goal which holds faculty to a higher level of accountability both for the content and method(s) of individual assessment and performance.
Another strategy for holding faculty to a higher level of individual accountability in assessment concerns the data points collected. Outcomes, pedagogy, and measurement methods must all correspond, both for summative assessment such as demonstrating students have achieved certain levels, and formative assessment such as improving student learning, teaching, and programs (Banta, Griffin, Flateby, & Kahn, 2009, p. 6). In considering how such a dynamic process is then implemented, we can consider such concepts as a community of practice, and community of learning, and instead consider the implementation of a community of assessment. Holding each other mutually accountability for formative and summative assessment alike is one way a faculty member can gain more in-depth data during his/her individual assessment process, by eliciting the feedback of supervisors, peers, other colleagues, and students collectively in order to form a community of assessment. One extant method of this today is the 360 degree feedback process. This process asks for the performance feedback regarding one individual, sought from positions proximal to the individual in all directions, ranging from those the person works for, to those he/she works with, to those who serve him/her. Such a process can help instigate a community of assessment by sharing the individual assessment process among many, permitting both richer data for individual assessment, and a subsequent means for theming data across individuals as well. Such a process can combine feedback from students and fellow faculty to learn how a particular program is serving the community, while equally assessing say teaching style and whether/how this impacts a faculty member’s ability to teach. The implications of such a process are promising, not only because there are already a great number of tools available to implement such an evaluation process, yet equally promising as the individual assessment process is then served by a multifaceted data collection procedure. One best way of asserting the merits of the academy is to implement an assessment of learning assessment system that simultaneously helps improve student-learning and provides clear evidence of institutional efficacy that satisfies appropriate calls for accountability (Hersh, 2004, p. 3).
Association of American Colleges & Universities (AAC&U) Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). (2008). New leadership student learning accountability: A statement of principles, commitments to action. Washington: DC. Retrieved from http://www.newleadershipalliance.org/images/uploads/new%20leadership%20principles.pdf.
Banta, T. W., Griffin, M., Flateby, T. L., & Kahn, S. (2009). Three promising alternatives for assessing college students’ knowledge and skills. (NILOA Occasional Paper No.2). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois and Indiana University, National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA). Retrieved http://learningoutcomesassessment.org/documents/AlternativesforAssessment.pdf.
Hersh, R. H. (2004). Assessment and accountability: Unveiling value added assessment in higher education. A paper presented at the AAHE National Assessment Conference, Denver, CO. Retrieved from http://www.aacu.org/resources/assessment/Hershpaper.pdf.