The Juxtaposition of Social/Ethical Responsibility across Disciplines

As I approach full speed in the post-doctoral program, I equally approach my first opportunity to share publicly insights derived from this study of assessment, evaluation, and accountability. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) identifies its established social and ethical responsibilities of evaluators.  In juxtaposition, the social and ethical responsibilities of institutional research as an education-based area of interest, are expressed by the Association for Institutional Research (AIR).  Yet first, a personal introduction as requested by this assignment.  I have chosen institutional research as my professional education-based area of interest, as research and analysis have been at the heart of much of what I’ve done for the past decade or more.

Spanning a period easily covering ten years, I have straddled industry and academe for the purpose of not only remaining a lifelong learner but continuing to leverage what I take from each course and apply it as readily as possible to my working world in industry and in the classroom to the benefit of my employers and my students.  As mentioned elsewhere in my ‘about’ page, my work includes a multitude of projects focused on distilling a clear view of institutional effectiveness and program performance. Roles have included senior outcomes analyst, management analyst, operations analyst, assessor, and faculty member for organizations in industries ranging from higher education to hardware manufacturing and business intelligence.  With each position a new opportunity to assimilate new methods for assessing data.  With each new industry a new opportunity to learn a new language, adhere to new practices, and synthesize the combined/protracted experience that is the sum of their parts.  Yet in each instance I do not feel as though I remain with a steadfast understanding that I’ve learned more and therefore have less left to learn.  In each instance I instead feel as though I know and have experienced even less of what the world has to offer.  Focusing this indefinite thirst to speak to assessment and evaluation specifically, the task becomes pursuing ever-greater growth, and ever-greater success across a wide range of applications, industries, and instances, while equally remaining true to guiding principles which serve those who benefit from any lesson I learn or analysis I perform.

The Program Evaluation Standards intimate standards statements regarding propriety which include responsive and inclusive orientation, formal agreements, human rights and respect, clarity and fairness, transparency and disclosure, conflicts of interest, and fiscal responsibility.  At the heart of these Yarbrough, Shulha, Hopson, & Caruthers (2011) remark, “Ethics encompasses concerns about the rights, responsibilities, and behaviors of evaluators and evaluation stakeholders… All people have innate rights that should be respected and recognized” (p. 106).  This is then compared with a like-minded statement from the AEA directly in stating, “Evaluators have the responsibility to understand and respect differences among participants, such as differences in their culture, religion, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation and ethnicity, and to account for potential implications of these differences when planning, conducting, analyzing, and reporting evaluations” (Guiding Principles for Evaluators, n.d., para. 40).  Finally, in juxtaposition we have Howard, McLaughlin, & Knight with The Handbook of Institutional Research (2012) who write, “All employees should be treated fairly, the institutional research office and its function should be regularly evaluated, and all information and reports should be secure, accurate, and properly reported… The craft of institutional research should be upheld by a responsibility to the integrity of the profession” (p. 42). Thus, in the end, while this work had intended to explore a juxtaposition, the chosen word implies some paradoxical behavior at least to a slight degree, in actuality shows none of the sort.  Rather, we find congruence, and we find agreement.

It is important to uphold standards for the ethical behavior of evaluators, as the very profession is one steeped in a hard focus on data, and the answers data provide.  We as human beings, however, tend to this profession while flawed. We make mistakes, we miscalculate, we deviate from design, and we inadvertently insert bias into our findings.  None of this may be done on purpose, and certainly not all transgressions are present in every study.  The implication is there, though, that we can make mistakes and are indeed fallible.  At the same time we are of a profession which is tasked with identifying what is data and what is noise, what programs work and which curriculum does not, which survey shows desired outcomes and which employees are underperforming.  These are questions which beget our best efforts, our most scientific of endeavors, and our resolute of trajectories to identify only truths however scarce, amid the many opportunities to be tempted toward manufacturing alternate – albeit perhaps more beneficial – realities for we as evaluators and our stakeholders. All participants have rights, all evaluators have rights, and all sponsors have rights.  It is our task to serve in the best collective interest, using the best methods available to ensure a properly informed future.

American Evaluation Association. (n.d.). Guiding principles for evaluators. Retrieved September 11, 2013 from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51

Howard, R.D., McLaughlin, G.W., & Knight, W.E. (2012). The handbook of institutional research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Yarbrough, D. B., Shulha, L. M., Hopson, R. K., & Caruthers, F. A. (2011). The program evaluation standards (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

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How Management Styles are Changing

The organization defined is a goal-directed, boundary-maintaining, and socially constructed system of human activity (Aldrich & Ruef, 1979).  In its essence, the construct of management is also met with a clear definition including the activities of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.  When considering these concepts in juxtaposition, the foundations of management do not waver, and the activities associated at a conceptual level remain the same.  What has changed, however, is how each of these activities is carried out, for the sake of the sustainability of each goal-directed, boundary-maintaining system of activity.  How the activities of management are performed is a question of style, and style has indeed evolved.  This evolution in style – and the proliferation of additional, nuanced styles – is a result of a combination of advances in technology, organizational form, as well as shifts in the prevailing workforce demographic of each organization.

To say that technology has changed what management is would be giving credit where it is not due. Technology has instead changed the way management is performed, while its functions remain stable.  The prevailing literature, both academic and practitioner, now discuss advances in technology as shepherds of a global, diverse, tightly linked, and transparent collection of organizations, which are home to managers who use every affiliation necessary to further the progress of one’s guiding objectives.  Those objectives are no longer driven by a desire to simply control aggregated activity, as was the focus both during and immediately following the industrial revolution.  Objectives, and the style of today’s manager, are driven by purpose.  This has given way to such works as Hamel’s The Future of Management, Benko & Anderson’s The Corporate Lattice, Hallowell’s Shine, as well as Pascale, Sternin, & Sternin’s The Power of Positive Deviance to name a few.  While these texts describe very different facets of organizational life, they share the common thread of managers doing everything they can to identify what is working in an organization, how best practice can be both identified and spread throughout the organization, and place the focus on the potential of a workforce, rather than upon controlling its activities.  Management style has thus changed from choosing between varying levels of commanding/controlling resources, to instead choosing between varying levels of interaction with the value chain of an organization and the resources associated with that value chain.  In its essence, management style is now most impacted by considerations for epistasis, where the critical question is how the manager will choose to leverage his/her unique talents to influence the organization’s ecosystem.  Rather than ask simply what part of an organization he/she is responsible for, the manager now instead seeks knowledge of influence networks, as both organizational knowledge and responsibility are interspersed.

– Justin

Amid the Tumult, the Purposive Manager

Management as a practice can be seen as a combination of art, craft, and science, which take place on an information plane, a people plane, and an action plane (Mintzberg, 2009). A good manager, then, is someone who moves beyond the traditional confines of seeing one’s function as planning/organizing/leading/controlling each in isolation at a specific point in time, and instead sees managing as using all aspects of one’s intuition, training, and talents at once and in perpetuity.

Where managers are now described in the literature as operating in an environment wherein interruptions can be encountered up to every 48 seconds of the day, and the manager’s attention is thus piecemeal and scattered across multiple tasks as well as decisions in a single hour, it remains important that a “good manager” use this as a strength not as what defines their work. Rather than using the bustle of today’s business environment as an excuse for surface-level consideration of every decision encountered, it is instead an opportunity to convey consistency in message and purpose with every new decision. A day can be filled with hundreds of isolated decisions made at-a-glance, or they can all be made while guided by a single thread of focused purpose and attention to the direction he/she wishes to push their ecosystem within the manager’s given sphere of influence. If the manager wishes to develop a team guided by thoughtful analysis, each decision made can be an interruption prior to returning to this task, or it can be a way to substantiate this wish by emphasizing thoughtful analysis in each decision. A good manager thus uses technical skills to facilitate the professional and technical aspects of daily work, while also using those same technical skills to describe how best to support and influence the technical aspects of others’ work as well. Soft skills are equally important to ensure not only that influence is purported, yet the purpose and direction as the manger sees fitting is communicated within his/her network in a way which delivers a lasting impression.

An Operations Manager uses his technical knowledge of the business to drive operations, while also using this technical knowledge to guide others’ work within the scope of process variation, selection, and retention. His soft skills are important as the potential global, and very likely diverse workforce with which he works must be influenced and led, not directed and controlled alone. The Finance Manager must use her technical skills to drive the fiduciary sustainability of an organization and her team, but must also use her technical skills to seek an efficacious value chain to sustain the organization’s competitive advantage. Her soft skills thus are what provide the conduit for this process, and technical skills the information necessary for her network to later develop the tacit knowledge necessary for this to occur. A “good manager”, then, is aware of the organization’s ecosystem, his/her influence on this ecosystem, and will put to use all intuition, training, and talents present, to help others see how an organization’s value chain drives its purpose.

– Justin

Is the Model of the ‘Working Manager’ Truly Working?

Upon examination of the current worldview employed by the managers of today’s organizations, the term ‘working manager’ immediately comes to mind. We live in a complicated time where globalization is a given, knowledge networks are the foundation for action, and companies are only as successful as their most succinctly defined system of proprietary activity. This is met with economic times which have left many out of work, those who remain to perform the work of multiple, many to be overqualified for the positions they serve, and organizations forced to perpetuate only those aspects of their organization which can clearly add to the value proposition that is their economic engine.

Every organization needs performance in three major areas, including the building and reaffirmation of values, the building and developing of its people, and direct results (Drucker & Maciariello, 2006). What today’s manager is being held most accountable for, I believe based primarily upon the economic and competitive environment we are living in, are the direct results of their teams. This is countervailing to what is necessary for a perpetual organization, however, as this only focuses the manger’s time and attention on one aspect of three when looking to get things done through others. This does not take into account the necessary activities for developing people, and this does not take into account the necessary activities for building and reaffirming an organization’s values.

Taking concepts such as cognitive dissonance into account, this leads the manager to believe that if results are what receive emphasis from senior leadership, then results must be what emphasis receives their time and attention as well. Managers who are not expected to focus on development do not develop people, or perpetuate their organizations values. Instead, these managers rewrite the organizations values to emphasize action and results, just as senior leadership has done for them. The working manager therefore prevails as if results are to be center-stage, the manger will take on just as much of the technical and activity-based responsibilities of the team as any specialist under his/her charge. This will not lead to sustainability, however, only immediate outcomes. Technology, advancing organizational forms, and the diversity of our interconnected global workforce should serve as a primer for developmental action, not something to return to ‘once the work is finished’.

– Justin

Drucker, P. F. & Maciariello, J. A. (2006). The effective executive in action. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

When High Achievers and Low Achievers Work in the Same Group: An Article Review

Learning by Unlearning

In 2008, The British Psychological Society published an article entitled When High Achievers and Low Achievers Work in the Same Group: The Roles of Group Heterogeneity and Processes in Project-Based Learning.  As put by the authors Cheng, Shui-fong, & Chan (2008), “the present research investigated the roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning.”  This was done with the intent to further understand the effects of grouping in project based work, in order to determine how best to optimize both self efficacy and collective efficacy.  At the crux was the hypothesis of an interaction effect between student achievement and group processes on efficacy.  In order to test this hypothesis, variables ranging from group gender distribution, to group size, to group processes were reviewed; this in order to determine which had the most prominent positive relationship to self efficacy and collective efficacy.

Linear modeling was used to investigate the relationships between variables, and group members were categorized by low, average, and high achievers.  Yet, it was the individuality of the learner, when taken into account in the interpersonal learning environment, which gave the research team their richest data.  Many current understandings about learning provide strong support for classrooms that recognize, honor, and cultivate individuality (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 18).  This was the case when the team discovered their learning around groupings and project-based work led them to emphasize the interactions of learners, as opposed to the effects of grouping itself.  On average, findings about the effects of homogenous and heterogeneous groupings were varied and inconsistent across studies (Cheng, Shui-fong, & Chan, 2008, p. 3).  This was because the assumption that optimal grouping is as heterogeneous as possible across skill levels was simply not the focus when looking to continue to improve both self efficacy and collective efficacy.

Grouping for Excellence

The specifics of what is meant are the keys to incorporating these findings into the concepts surrounding differentiated instruction.  Group processes of high quality include at least four elements: positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, and social skills (Cheng, Shui-fong, & Chan, 2008, p. 3).  These elements are those that lead to a foundation of solid interpersonal communication, group interaction, and – most notably – group cohesion.  While varying levels of skills, gender, and size are all taken into account in the differentiated classroom, what must be emphasized as per the research are the dynamics which shape the interaction among group members.  The brain learns best when it can come to understand by making its own sense out of information rather than when information is imposed on it (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 19).  Both homogenous and heterogeneous groupings come with their own strengths and weaknesses.  Where homogeneous groupings, on average, keep each level of achiever firmly planted in their preexisting classification, and heterogeneous groupings are decidedly not without the consequence of potentially stifling the high achievers for the gain of the improvement of low achievers; looking beyond the groupings alone allow for a differentiated classroom that can have communities of learning within that thrive.

The Rules of the Game

In order to bring this concept from the theoretical to the practical, the various elements discussed must be incorporated into the classroom.  Heterogeneity usually is a one-size-fits-all endeavor where the learning plan swallows some learners and pinches others (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 22).  So while the concept of heterogeneity is still favored to homogeneity, the aforementioned elements of high quality group process must be integrated.  Positive interdependence deals with ensuring that each group member is reliant on other members of the group to serve particular functions or roles in order to achieve the collective goal.  This can be incorporated into the classroom via assigning particular roles to members of a team, or to members of a class.  Individual accountability deals with maintaining a group grade, yet also ensuring that each team member is tasked with a particular portion of each project.  When considering both positive interdependence and individual accountability, these factors begin to allow the class to see beyond their differences, and instead focus on how they will work together to achieve individually assigned components of the work.

Equal participation deals with ensuring that those individually assigned components from the element of individual accountability are assigned in a way where they are equal among the group.  Social skills deals with the abilities of each team member to interact with the remaining group, and include traits such as communication, decision-making, trust-building, and conflict management (Cheng, Shui-fong, & Chan, 2008, p. 4).  When emphasizing these elements in the classroom, work that stems from equity among group members, in a group environment where collaboration reigns and conflict is managed to a minimum, the emphasis can then be on the content, process, and product by which the lesson is completed.

We need to begin our investigation of how to differentiate instruction for a diverse student population (Tomlinson, 1999, p. 24).  While the Tomlinson text discusses additional assumptions around differences in student characteristics, the article under review is to add that components of each student as a member of the group can therefore contribute to the success of the instruction’s differentiation as well.  When put into practice, group work that emphasizes positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, and social skills can have the potential to create a learning environment where not only is self efficacy increased, yet collective efficacy is both emphasized and increased as well.

– Justin

Cheng, R., Shui-fong, L., & Chan, J. (2008). When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: The roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(2), 205-221.

Tomlinson, C.A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. ASCD. Alexandria, VA.

On Perpetual Organizational Progress

Emergence as a recognized entity secures a tentative place for an organization in a population, but its persistence depends upon the continual replication of its routines and competencies (Aldrich & Ruef, 2006, p. 94).  We think of where we work as somewhere fixed; an institution in its truest sense, a building with cubicles, desks with computers, and employees with bosses.  Yet what the research has shown is this is only the case because we collectively make it so each day, and the day we cease to do so is the day our organization equally ceases to persist.  From this outlook, though, comes an equally ambitious upside… we then have a choice on the organizational routines and competencies we elect to replicate and utilize.  Said differently, we can begin to rethink, regroup, redirect, and retool at any time as the organization is not in a fixed state.  So what’s stopping us?  Transformational change involves a radical shift from one state of being to another, which is an extremely painful process… proactive transformation requires an awareness of the consequences the “new” context will have on the existing culture, behaviors, and mindset, if it is to be engaged in willingly (Biscaccianti, Esposito, & Williams, 2011, p. 30).

We as individual members of an organization function as both user and supporter of the organization continually and paradoxically.  We are project managers, financial analysts, account executives, and customer service representatives.  We are defined by our role, by our processes, by the systems we use, the skills we have, and the declarative & procedural knowledge we employ.  We do not change because we choose not to change, and we choose not to change because we took far too long learning and working and struggling to get where we are with what we know.  Is this an accurate look on reality, though?  To seek perpetual organizational progress is to seek a framework and mindset of near-daily renewal of our routines and competencies for the sake of our company’s progress, not for change’s sake alone, nor at the expense of individual accomplishment.  The organization at its essence is an aggregation of human effort, not of best practices, industry standards, and heralded products and services.  Put another way, individuals can be wildly successful and equally accomplished, while the organizations they work for is under a constant state of flux and renewal.  One can use and support an organization differently each day, while being regarded the expert of his/her craft.  Thus, in order to pursue perpetual organizational progress, a new lens with which to view change is necessary.

The essence of the problem-finding and problem-solving approach revolves around the identification of problem characteristics and the extent to which they entail corresponding impediments to the activities of problem finding, framing, and formulating; problem solving; and solution implementation…  methodologically, this approach responds to design science’s call to comparatively evaluate alternative governing mechanisms that mitigate impediments, leading to more comprehensive problem formulations, more efficient searching for and creating of valuable solutions, and more successful implementation of solutions (2012, p. 58).  This approach to organizational design allows us to ask far broader questions of management, and of every member’s contribution to ongoing organizational success.  Success herein and thus far has not been defined, and this definition remains absent as the definition must instead remain iterative.  We should not seek success in traditional terms as traditional terms warrant traditional practices, and those practices warrant the knowledge we already have and the processes we already use.  Perpetual progress then means a perpetual identification of new problems, new obstacles, new impediments, new solutions, and a new definition of success with each march forward.

Is there a magic recipe all companies should follow for identifying the problems we must then address in perpetuity?  With persistence as the goal the answer then remains, not likely.  What can be done, however, is we can instead codify the process for identifying problems at the individual organizational level, as those same routines and competencies which brought us to today can then serve as filters for identifying further opportunities for progress.  Cognitive heuristics – problem-solving techniques that reduce complex situations to simpler judgmental operations – can become specific to an organizational form, or even an individual organization (Aldrich & Ruef, 2006, p. 120).  The very fabric which defines how our organizations are successful now then becomes not what we choose to change, yet instead what we use to evaluate what else should change.  Success today sets not tomorrow’s bar, it identifies today’s neighboring problem.  All else may change to exist on-par with that new success.

Today’s performance management systems seek to evaluate how well individual members are faring at performing pre-determined routines.  Individual performance measurement is accepted as a retrospective task seeking convergent methods of routine persistence and level of competence.  We set new goals, yet of the same routines.  We establish new targets, yet of only marginally enlarged job descriptions.  Skeptical?  Ask yourself when you were last given a revised job description based on what you’ve learned during your year(s) of service and growth.  Better still, ask yourself when you directly contributed toward the authorship of such a document.  Rational system theorists stress goal specificity and formalization, natural system theorists generally acknowledge the existence of these attributes but argue that other characteristics – characteristics shared with all social groups – are of greater significance, and open systems are [instead] capable of self-maintenance on the basis of throughput of resources from the environment, [and] this throughput is essential to the system’s viability (Scott, 2003).  Social systems warranting the identification of work performed indeed, and based on the resources provided by the surrounding environment.  This then obviates the idea that performance management should be based on a fixed target, much as organizational progress is only perpetual when fixed routines and competencies have been abandoned.

To seek resolution, then, of the competing challenges between management’s historical predisposition toward a rational system, and its desire to emulate open systems thinking, we seek not a replacement for today’s routines or tomorrow’s stretch goals.  We seek instead, an entirely different unit of analysis, and object of our futurist affection.  What we should be promoting instead of leadership alone are communities of actors who get on with things naturally, leadership together with management being an intrinsic part of that (Mintzberg, 2009, p. 9).  We seek the ability to fluidly move between the routines which bring us present success, the pursuit of impediments to success elsewhere, and the ability to base our progress on an iterative view of success itself and our progress toward it, thereby managing performance on numerous planes simultaneously.  Those planes then include perhaps a normative look at performance via the evaluations we all know and review periodically, the plane of success impediments identified, the working definition of success holistically, and the actions/strategies necessary to balance them all.  And is there a process for identifying these actions/strategies?  Indeed there is.  Positive deviance (PD) is founded on the premise that at least one person in a community, working with the same resources as everyone else, has already licked the problem that confounds others… from the PD perspective, individual difference is regarded as a community resource… community engagement is essential to discovering noteworthy variants in their midst and adapting their practices and strategies (Pascale, Sternin, & Sternin, 2010, p. 3).  We can embrace the bestseller lists without reservation and engage in either frequency imitation, trait imitation, outcome imitation, or a combination of the three.  Conversely, we can seek these deviants, and not for their solutions, but for their methodology at removing impediment in the name of a new successful day, every day.

– Justin

The Work That Gets Measured…

The organization is an entity which can be both viewed and assessed through a multitude of lenses, this includes the organizational learning approach.  The organizational learning approach focuses on how individuals, groups, and organizations notice and interpret information and use it to alter their fit with their environments (Aldrich & Ruef, 2009, p. 47).  The varying schools of thought around viewing organizations included lenses for viewing each as an ecosystem, as a combination of symbolic interactions, and as a series of transaction costs.  This view looks specifically into organizations as a network of persons learning and growing according to their environment.  Aldrich & Ruef (2009) continue, “The adaptive learning perspective, pioneered by Cyert and March (1963), treats organizations as goal-oriented activity systems that learn from experience by repeating apparently successful behaviors and discarding unsuccessful ones… From the adaptive learning perspective, variations are generated when performance fails to meet targeted aspiration levels, triggering problem-driven search routines” (p. 47).

The above suggests that we seek ‘a better mousetrap’ not only when we feel the current has gone stale, yet when targets are not met as well.  This should come as no surprise, yet what does require reinforcement is determining when targets are missed in the first place.  How do we determine we’ve missed the mark, if the mark is not plainly labeled before we begin?  In short, we do not know in advance, and therefore cannot always know when the mark has been unintentionally averted.  Adaptation then requires not only the ability to alter course according to outcome, yet is equally predicated on knowing the outcome sought to begin with.  This appeal to clarity reverberates throughout both management process and strategic clarity.  Once ready, we have just one consideration left for the moment before action, recognizing how much we can achieve based on what we’ve already done to-date.

Aldrich & Ruef (2009) complete the thought with, “Prior organizational learning creates knowledge structures and sets of conceptual categories that filter subsequent information and thus influence further learning.  Cohen and Levinthal (1990) borrowed the term absorptive capacity from industrial economics to refer to the level of stored knowledge and experience that make organizations better able to learn from further experience.” (p. 48).  Absorptive capacity is then this final consideration.  We take into account where we want to go as an organization, what benchmarks will alert us to whether progress is being made, while taking into consideration what we’ve accomplished/learned in the past, and we have a further informed determination of just how adaptable we can be collectively.

– Justin

Aldrich, H.E. & Ruef, M. (2009). Organizations evolving. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

My Philosophy of Teaching

A Call to Action

Exercising the courage to become more purpose-centered, other-focused, internally directed, and externally open results in increased hope and unleashes a variety of other positive emotions (Quinn, 2004). I as a teacher am not so solely because of anything tangible. Nor am I a teacher solely for those inspired moments in each student’s day. Rather, I feel that teaching is both a privilege and a responsibility. It is a privilege as I do have the opportunity to touch lives, bring new hope to possibly otherwise under-informed futures, and hopefully and occasionally inspire someone to be great. Yet, I additionally feel teaching is a responsibility each generation has to its successors. As society can be regarded as a construct of social networks, a collection of living systems, and its role to be that of sustainability long-term; teachers hold the responsibility of ushering in an informed era for those that follow such that they have the opportunity to continue the successes of the past and create their own in the process.

Learning as SKILLS

Self-Knowledge Inventory of Lifelong Learning Strategies (SKILLS) is based upon five aspects of learning which are essential to the learning process, these are the constructs of metacognition, metamotivation, memory, resource management, and critical thinking (Conti & Fellenz, 1991). Taking this construct as developed by the Center for Adult Learning Research at Montana State University into account, it creates a paradigm with which to gauge not only the structure and success of a given lesson plan, yet the success of each student in terms of their own personal level of learning as well. As metacognition regards the ability of the learner to reflect upon what has been learned and work to make their own learning process more efficient over time, it is my responsibility to ensure each learner has the tools to do so. As metamotivation regards the learner’s control over their own motivational strategies, it is both my responsibility and privilege to ensure those options exist while in a learning environment. As both memory and resource management are stand-alone concepts, I operate with an obligation to ensure the methodologies I employ allow for greater capture and memory usage while allowing for greater resource utilization and management as well. Finally, as critical thinking is a concept not uncommon in the academic environment, I will put defining this term to the side and instead comment that critical thinking is what I feel the majority of my teaching strategy is reliant upon. As critical thinking is what I feel separates the successful from those otherwise not experiencing similar success, I feel critical thinking and success are mutually beneficial and directly correlated. Yet, to ensure the greatest level of critical thinking in those I guide, I return to Quinn’s words regarding being purpose-centered, externally focused, and use these emphases to ensure each learner operates at their highest critical thinking potential.

Sculpting Futures

The workplace, the professions, the leaders and foot soldiers of civic society must all do their part – and that obligation cannot be spurned or postponed or fobbed off on institutions that are incapable of picking up the responsibility (Gardner, 2006). Institutions of higher learning have existed far before any referenced work concerning concepts such as adult learning strategies. Yet, very little separates the adult from the adult learner and again from those instructing such as myself. As that responsibility exists to ensure the sustainable future of our society, I feel taking an analytical approach to learning as with the SKILLS construct, aids in ensuring both that privilege and responsibility are well served. Finally, as a litmus test for whether I have succeeded as a teacher, I look to Wind & Crook’s definition of advancement. Science sometimes advances not through evolutionary progress in a given framework but through sudden leaps to a new model for viewing the world (Wind & Crook, 2005).

– Justin

Conti, G.J. & Fellenz, R.A. (1991). Assessing adult learning strategies. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University.

Gardner, H. (2006). Five minds for the future. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Quinn, R.E. (2004). Building the bridge as you walk on it: A guide for leading change. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Wind, Y.J. & Crook, C. (2005). The power of impossible thinking: Transform the business of your life and the life of your business. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing.

Do You Lead by Listening?

As Flight 1549 plummeted down, they chanted in unison to passengers, “Brace, brace, heads down, stay down,” preventing many injuries during the rough water landing; a testament to the leadership aboard the ‘Miracle on the Hudson’, and to the power of repetitive and concrete instruction for provoking action (Sutton, 2010). Examples such as this one are those rare gems which can take an entire tome on leadership, and give it a single, palpable schema with which to walk away from the reading and immediately apply its lessons. Yet is leadership entirely about leading? Is being a follower both the antithetical and only alternative?

Leadership is leading, yes as the term begets, but leading is additionally listening. In a summer article for the Harvard Business Review, Martin (2007) wrote, “Brilliant leaders excel at integrative thinking. They can hold two opposing ideas in their minds at once. Then, rather than settling for choice A or B, they forge an innovative “third way” that contains elements of both but improves on each… Embrace the complexity of conflicting options. And emulate great leaders’ decision-making approach – looking beyond obvious considerations” (p. 73). The funny thing is, though, some leaders may hear this and think they must come up with all of those great options & ideas personally. ‘They put me in charge because they expect me to have all the answers’ you may say. ‘My people can’t possibly think I am weak and in need of their help to decide what to do’. I challenge this thinking to instead reply that your abilities as an individual contributor may have been what brought you praise, possibly even initial consideration for the position you now serve, but it wasn’t why you were selected.

You were selected because you see the opportunities a better run team can collectively contribute to organizational success, more colloquially known as ‘seeing both the forest and the trees’. But where can we turn for a repetitive, concrete example of how to get the best of our people by learning to listen better, rather than relying on our ideas and personal experiences alone? How about a solution dating back to 1956, Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Educators have been using it for decades, and anyone who has frequented grad school has been exposed at least minimally in conversation with fellow scholars. The crux of Bloom’s work gives us categorical direction with which to mine meaningful data from our direct reports, by simply channeling the intentions of our listening activities via the following levels of thinking as described by Anderson & Krathwohl (2001):

Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory.

Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.

Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing.

Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.

Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing.

Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing.

So try this yourself with your team, by applying at least two of these levels in your next meeting, see if the conversation changes shape from what you’re used to hearing (or saying).

– Justin

Forehand, M. (2005). Bloom’s taxonomy: Original and revised. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved from http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/

Martin, R. (2007). How successful leaders think. Harvard Business Review, 85(6), 60-67.

Sutton, R. I. (2010). Good boss, bad boss: How to be the best – and learn from the worst. New York, NY: Business Plus.